Biodiversity in Belize
Biological Diversity in Belize
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Biodiversity Papers & Publications

Most publications can be downloaded as an Adobe Acrobat file. Some links are to web pages.

Hook-billed Kite Breeding Poster. Poster 2015 (PDF 2,287 kB) synthesizing three years of study on the enigmatic Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus that was nesting at Green Hills Butterfly Ranch.

Los Búhos Neotropicales. Diversidad y conservación / Neotropical Owls, Diversity and Conservation. Enriquez, P.L. (Editor)2015. (PDF 24,619 kB). With a chapter on Belizean Owls by Lee Jones and Jan Meerman, with distribution maps.

Brigs, V.S., F.J. Mazzotti, R.G. Harvey, T.K. Barnes, R. Manzanero, J.C. Meerman, P. Walker and Z. Walker. 2013. Conceptual Ecological Model of the Chiquibul/Maya Mountain Massif, Belize. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 19: 317-340.

Final National Protected Areas System Plan Report (systhesis of all sub-consultancy reports: Meerman & Wilson, January 2006. pdf 2,554 kb. See also project page. For more reports in the 2004-2006 National Protected Areas Systems Project

Preliminary Survey of Land Degradation in Belize. Meerman & Cherrington, 2005. Study into potential and causes of Land Degradation. Study for the Government of Belize. (PDF, 4,927kb)

Belize Biodiversity Mapping Service. Meerman J. C., J. Clabaugh and M. Vasquez. 2005. Public Access to Biodiversity Information via the Web. Feature Article in GIM International (pdf, 729 kb).

Xate in the Columbia River Forest Reserve, Meerman, J. C. 2004. report on densities of Chamaedorea species (Arecaceae) in the Hurricane affected areas of the Columbia River Forest Reserve, Southern Belize. pdf 3,237 kb. Be careful, large file!

Columbia River Forest Reserve (Past Hurricane Iris) Rapid Ecological Assessment. Meerman, J. C. 2004. Study to regeneration levels in the Columbia River Forest Reserve (Southern Belize) which was severely affected by Hurricane Iris in 2001. The study also makes recommendations on the future of salvage logging operations going on in the Forest Reserve: pdf 660kb

A recent population assessment of the American crocodile (Crocodylus
acutus) in Turneffe Atoll, Belize.
Steven Platt, Thomas Rainwater and Stephen Nichols (pdf 192 kb)

Low levels of nucleotide diversity in Crocodylus moreletii and evidence of hybridization with C. acutus. Ray et al. 2004. 14 pp. (pdf 210 kb)

The Columbia River Forest Reserve: Little Quartz Ridge Expedition, A Biological Assessment. Meerman J. C. & S. Matola (eds.), 2003. Columbia University Printing Services. 93 pp. (pdf 2,405 kb).

Sarstoon Temash Rapid Ecological Assessment: Sarstoon Temash REA Final Report December 2003 (pdf 3,560 kb)

Rapid Ecological Assessment of the Mayflower Bocawina National Park

J. C. Meerman, B. Holland, A. Howe, H.L. Jones, B.W. Miller. 2003. pdf files. Final Report: 2,102 kb

Harpy Eagle Release Update, by Sharon Matola (website, several pages)

Fascinating Species of the Genus Passiflora

Belize Chapter in the book of Bettina & Torsten Ulmer (in press). (link to website)

Map of the Ecosystems of Central America

Vreugdenhil, D., J. Meerman, A. Meyrat, L. Diego Gómez, and D. J. Graham. 2002. Map of the Ecosystems of Central America: Final Report. World Bank, Washington, D.C. (Zipped Adobe Acrobat file).

Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler): an addition to the herpetofauna of Turneffe Atoll, Belize. Platt, Meerman, Rainwater & Finger, 2002. (pdf, 56 kb)

Tokay Gecko Gekko gecko. (L) established on South Water Caye, Belize

Meerman, J. & J. Garel, 2002. Reports on the establishment of the Asian Tokay Gecko on one of the Belizean islands.

Ecosystems Mapping of Central America: Belize

This report on Belizean Ecosystems and vegetation types was produced as part of the Central American Ecosystems Map (Worldbank/CCAD) and recognizes 86 different ecosystems for Belize. Meerman & Sabido, 2001

Feasibility Study of the Northern Biological Corridor

Details the potential of a Biological Corridor through Northern Belize. With maps and site descriptions. A study commissioned by Programme for Belize. 2001 (Adobe Acrobat 8,469 kb)

Lepidoptera of Belize1. Butterflies, 2. Emperor Moths and Hawk Moths. 

J. C. Meerman, 2001. This is an annotated checklist of the more conspicuous Lepidoptera families of Belize: Papilionidae (37 species), Pieridae (39 species),  Lycaenidae (67 species), Riodinidae (70 species), Libytheidae (1 species), Nymphalidae (85 species), Saturniidae (53 species) and Sphingidae (103 species).  In addition, this publication provides some information on seasonality and caterpillar foodplants.


This publication can be ordered from: ATL Books, P. O. Box 141210, Gainesville, FL. Phone: 32614-1210, FAX: (352) 373-3249., Website: Click here

Price US$ 18.--  Association for Tropical Lepidoptera members pay US$ 10.-- A field guide for the butterflies of Belize is in preparation.


Floristic Guide to the Flora of Rio Blanco National Park

J. Meerman, 2001. Picture guide to 40 plant species found in the Rio Blanco National Park. Toledo district, Belize. (pdf file 303 Kb).


Diversity, observations, and conservation of the herpetofauna of Turneffe, Lighthouse, and Glovers Atolls, Belize.

Platt, Meerman & Rainwater, 1999 (pdf 166 kb)

Rapid Ecological Assessment El Pilar Archaeological Reserve. Meerman, J. C. 1998. 20 pp + app.

Local treatment of human botfly myiasis in Belize

Platt, Schmidhauser & Meerman, 1997. (pdf, 18 kb)


Urania fulgens and other lepidoptera migrations in Belize

J. C. Meerman & T. Boomsma, 1997. (pdf 56 kb)


Vegetative Key to the Passionflowers of Belize

J. C. Meerman, 1997 (pdf 83 kb)

I'll Show You Mayan: Belize Jungle Expedition. Larry Rice, 1997. Publication in the "South American Explorer (49: 18-24) describing the 1995 Maya Mountain Traverse Expedition (Cayo and Toledo Districts, Belize).

Half Moon Caye, Belize. Terrestrial Survey Results and Management implications. Meerman, 1996. (pdf 182 kb) Reports on the terrestrial flora and fauna of this remote island with special attention to the unique reptile fauna. Discusses the negative effects of Coconut trees as an invasive species in this fragile habitat.


Odonata of Belize

Boomsma, T & Dunkle, 1995. Annotated checklist. (pdf 388 kb)


Monkey River Special Development Area Rapid Ecological Assessment. Meerman, J., T. Boomsma, B. Hassan & E.M.McRae. 1995 (pdf 25 mb) Report on the Flora and Fauna of the area around Monkey River, Toledo District, Belize.

Black Jaguars in Belize?: A Survey of Melanism in the Jaguar, Panthera onca. J. R. Meyer. 1994.

Maya Mountain Traverse Expedition, January 16 - February 4, 1995. Meerman J. C. & G. Williams. Ecological Report on the famous trek over the southern Maya Mountains from las Cuevas in the Cayo District to Indian Creek in the Toledo District. 75 pp.

The Woodstork colonies in the North Eastern Corozal District, Belize. 1991 and 1992 seasons, including a report on other bird colonies in the Chetumal Bay Area. Meerman, J. C. 1994. Estudio Integral de la Frontera Mexico-Belice. CIQRO, Chetumal Mexico. pp. 113-118. (pdf, 257 kb). Dealing with nesting colonies of American Woodstork (Mycteria americana), Roseate Spoonbill, Reddish Egret, Boat-billed Heron, Great Egret, Tricolored Heron, Anhinga, Double Crested Cormorant, Brown Pelican, Magnificent Frigatebird, White Ibis.

The status of crocodiles in the Eastern Corozal District, Belice.

Meerman, J. C., 1994. Estudio Integral de la Frontera Mexico-Belice. CIQRO, Chetumal Mexico. pp 107-112. (pdf 199kb). Reporting on the Morelets Crocodile Crocodylus moreleti and American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus in Northern Belize.


Biodiversity of the Shipstern Nature Reserve

Meerman J. C. & T. Boomsma, 1993. Listing of plant and animal species recorded in the Shipstern Nature Reserve, Corozal District, Belize. Groups discussed are: Flora, Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Hawkmoths, Satunid Moths, Fishes, Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals (pdf 442 kb).

Belize Butterflies In Europe. Article in Belize Today: Nov/Dec 1991. Describing butterfly pupae production in Shipstern Nature Reserve.

Freshwater Fishes and Aquatic Ecoystems observed in Belize and with special reference to Shipstern Nature Reserve and Whitewater Lagoon. DeRham, 1990. (pdf 166 kb).


Publications regarding biodiversity outside Belize:


Hyles euphorbiae

Relationships within the Hyles euphorbiae - complex: A numerical taxonomy approach (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

Meerman, J. C., 1993. Compares all know subspecies of the hawk moth Hyles euphorbiae concluding that the H. tithymali group is separated from the euphorbiae group. (pdf 241kb)


Vlinders Kweken: Passiebloemvlinders. Meerman, J.C. 1990. Vlinders 5(1): 19-21

Een Vlinderexpeditie naar Noord-Yemen. Meerman, J.C. 1989. Vlinders 4(4):17-20.

Kweken en Zweten. Intverview met J.C. Meerman. 1989. Vlinders 4(4):11-14.

The subspecies of Hyles tithymali with a description of a new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Meerman, J.C. 1988. Ent. Ber. Amst. 48: 61-67. (pdf 302 kb) Description of Hyles euphorbiae (tithymali) himyarensis from Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula.

Der Hyles euphorbiae-Komplex; die Wolfsmilch-schwärmer von Kreta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Meerman, J.C. & G. Smid. 1988. Ent.Z. 98(12): 161-176. (pdf 362 kb). In German. On an abberant (hybrid?) population of the hawkmoth Hyles euphorbiae/tithymali from the island of Crete.

Chamaeleo calyptratus

Beobachtungen and Chamaeleo calyptratus calyptratus Dumeril & Dumeril, 1851 in der Arabischen Republik Jemen (Sauria Chamaeleonidae)

Meerman J. & T. Boomsma, 1987. (German) Describes the natural environment and territorial behavior of the Veiled Chameleon (Yemen Chamaeleon, Jemen Chamaeleon, Caméléon casqué du Yémen) and notes the first record of Chamaeleo arabicus in the Yemen Arabic Republic. (pdf 2,532 kb)


De Nederlandse Pijlstaartvlinders (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Meerman, J. C. 1987. Wetenschappelijke Mededeling van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging nr. 180: 60pp. (pdf 2,754 kb). In Dutch: Study into biology, ecology and distribution of Hawkmoths in the Netherlands.

Der wenig bekannte Schwalbenschwanz aus Nord-Jemen, Papilio saharae rathjensi Warnecke 1932 - Freilandbeobachtungen un Zucht (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Meerman J. C. & T. Boomsma. 1986. Ent.Z. 96(13):177-192. (pdf: 189 kb) In German about fieldobservations and captive rearing of the Swallowtail Butterfly from Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula.

Mabuya brauni hildae Loveridge, 1953 considered a synonym of M. Brauni Tornier, 1902 (Sauria: Scincidae). Meerman, J. C. 1984. Taxonomic revision of a Tanzania skink. (pdf 98kb)

De Nachtpauwoog op Schouwen Duiveland. Meerman, J.C. 1983. Sterna 27(2): 48-50 (pdf 122 kb). Taxonomic status of Saturnia pavonia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) on the island of Schouwen Duiveland in Zeeland, the Netherlands.

Op zoek naar Kameleons in de vrije natuur. Meerman, J.C. 1982. Het Aquarium. 92(4); 109-112. Finding Chamaeleons in Tanzania. Chamaeleo gracilis, Trioceros fuelleborni, Kinyongia tavetanus, Trioceros sternfeldi. (pdf 1.1 Mb)

Herpetologisch Waarnemingen in Tunesie. Meerman, J.C. 1979. Lacerta 37(12); 169-180. Report on herpetological visit to Tunesia in April 1987. With simplified key to Tunesian reptiles and amphibans (pdf 2 Mb)

Enkele Herpetologische Waarnemingne in Tanzania. Meerman, J.C. 1979. Lacerta 37(10-11); 153-168. Report on herpetological visit to Tanzania in November 1977. Kinyongia tavetanus, Chamaeleo gracilis, etc. (pdf 2.5 Mb)

Seven-week persistence of an oviposition-deterrent pheromone. Schoonhoven, Sparnaay, Van Wissen & Meerman, 1981. Pheromones on the eggs of Cabbage Whites Pieris brassicae, deter other females from laying more eggs on the same plant. (pdf 142 kb)


Metabolic cost of changes in diet and neutralization of allelochemics.


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